Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 6
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    The role of minimally invasive surgery in gallbladder carcinoma
    (Obeagu and Obeagu, 2023) Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi; Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma
    Gallbladder carcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates from the cells lining the gallbladder. It is a relatively rare form of cancer but is associated with a poor prognosis due to its aggressive nature and late-stage diagnosis. The incidence of gallbladder carcinoma varies geographically. Minimally invasive surgery, also known as minimally invasive techniques or laparoscopic surgery, is a modern surgical approach that aims to achieve therapeutic goals while minimizing surgical trauma and invasiveness. It involves utilizing specialized instruments and advanced technologies to perform surgical procedures through small incisions or natural body openings.
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    The roles of free radicals in the red blood cell damage in chronic kidney diseases:
    (International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research, 2022-10-25) Oladoyin, Hellen Oloro; Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in older people. However, while young her CKD patients usually experience a progressive loss of renal function, his 30% of his CKD patients aged 65 years and older have stable disease. Red blood cells are constantly exposed to high concentrations of oxygen that promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Within 24 hours, 3% of haemoglobin is oxidized to form superoxide radicals. Studies have shown that haemoglobin itself is a catalyst for free radical reactions, and redox balance is maintained by the presence of antioxidant enzymes and low molecular weight reducing agents. Kidney tubular cells are rich in mitochondria. This is because reabsorption of solutes requires energy, making kidney cells particularly susceptible to oxidative stress and damage. In addition, free radicals and preoxidants produced during acute kidney injury (AKI) and CKD can exacerbate the damage. It may also play a role in the development of severe complications in distant organs commonly seen in AKI and CKD. B. Cardiovascular disease and neurological complications. Several studies have shown that plasma markers of oxidative stress are elevated in CKD patients, indicating increased systemic oxidative stress. Biomarkers for this disease are found in blood, serum, urine, and saliva, and the use of these fluids in clinical practice can help monitor disease
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    Understanding apoptosis in sickle cell anemia patients Mechanisms and implications
    (Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc., 2024) Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi; Nwanganga I, huoma Ubosi,; Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma; Egba, Simeon Ikechukwu; Bluth, Martin H.
    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary blood disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin, leading to the formation of sickle-shaped red blood cells. While much research has focused on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SCA, recent attention has turned to the role of apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in the disease progression. This review aims to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of apoptosis in SCA patients and explore its implications in disease severity, complications, and potential therapeutic interventions. Different research search engines such as PubMed central, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Academia Edu, etc were utilized in writing this paper. Apoptosis, a highly regulated cellular process, plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by eliminating damaged or dysfunctional cells. In SCA, the imbalance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals contributes to increased erythrocyte apoptosis, exacerbating anemia and vaso-occlusive crises. Various factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cell signaling pathways, converge to modulate the apoptotic response in SCA. Furthermore, the interaction between apoptotic cells and the vascular endothelium contributes to endothelial dysfunction, promoting the pathogenesis of vasculopathy and organ damage seen in SCA patients. In conclusion, unraveling the complexities of apoptosis in SCA provides valuable insights into the disease pathophysiology and offers novel avenues for therapeutic interventions. Abbreviations: DAMPs = damage-associated molecular patterns, HbS = hemoglobin S, SCA = sickle cell anemia.
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    Update on mothers towards neonatal umbilical cord sepsis:
    (International Journal of Current Research in Medical Sciences, 2023) Obeagu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi; Obeagu, Getrude Uzoma; Musiimenta, Esther; Yakubu, Sunday Bot; Abdulwasiu, Oladele Hassan
    Neonatal umbilical sepsis continues to be a major health problem with up to 323 of every 1000 neonates seen in clinics presenting with clinical symptoms. The unhealed umbilical cord is a major entry point for local and invasive infections during the neonatal period and is rapidly colonised by bacteria from the environment. The reasons for the high incidence of neonatal sepsis in developing countries are high incidence of home deliveries, unhygienic cord cutting, application of unclean substances to the stump and covering the stump with unclean fabric.
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    Update on the roles human immunodeficiency virus infection and malnutrition on immunity
    (International Journal of Innovative and Applied Research, 2022-01-06) Obeagu1, Emmanuel Ifeanyi; Scott, Godfred Yawson; Amekpor, Felix; Ofodile, Amaechi Chukwudi
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a major public health threat to the existence of human beings especially to the developing countries like in Africa. Human Immunodeficiency Virus attacks the CD4 T cells thereby suppressing the immunity of the human host. There is high level of malnutrition in the developing countries due to poor economic status of many individuals with attendant immunodeficiency which affects the patients with HIV drastically for survival. Patients with HIV infection should maintain good nutritional status with improved immunity for increased life span and effectiveness in their works. A lot of commitment from the society is needed to encourage the patients with HIV to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates associated to HIV infection.