Physical Sciences

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    Morphological and Microstructural Characterization of Organoclays from Low Smectite Containing Clays Materials
    (Chemical Science International Journal, 2017-02-03) Nwankwere, Emeka Thompson
    Two low smectite-containing clay materials were modified, using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) as intercalating agents, under very mild experimental conditions, to investigate their potentials as suitable organoclays for industrial and environmental applications. Changes in the general morphological and microstructural characteristics were studied by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Brauner Emmet Taylor (BET) Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) before and after modification. The shift in XRD reflections after intercalation indicated that the HDTMA chains adopt monolayer and bilayer arrangements within the clay interlayers and were largely dependent on the reaction time and surfactant loading. This resulted in decreased specific surface area and increased pore sizes in the organoclay samples.
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    Can Governance in Revenue Sharing Be a Pathway for a Win-win Situation between People’s Livelihood Improvement and Conservation?
    (Council for Innovative Research, 2015-05) Twinamatsiko, Medard
    This paper establishes the importance of good governance in improving local livelihoods and support for conservation. The study uses empirical realities from Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, an afromontane Gorilla sanctuary that was recognized by UNESCO in 2005 as a world heritage due to its rich biodiversity. Governance is an important procedural dimension of equity that entails decision making processes and how local people are involved in matters that most affect them. The paper uses a Policy Arrangements Approach to illustrate the procedural dimension of the Justice and Equity Framework. A mixed method approach was used to generate results in this paper. Household surveys, key informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions were employed for data collection. Linear and Multi Logistic Regressions were used to determine the level of significance and relationships that exist between governance, people‘s livelihoods and conservation support. Polychoric Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to generate indices of livelihood improvement and conservation support. Results revealed that meaningful involvement, leadership composition on committees, local capacity, information flow and awareness and accountability significantly influence people‘s livelihoods and conservation of Bwindi. Local people are not only concerned about distributive equity in benefit sharing but also the procedural dimension. This entails being part of revenue sharing projects from the design phase to the evaluation phase. The study recommends the use of equity framework in revenue sharing in order to increase greater involvement of local people in decision making processes.
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    Toxic metal levels in food crops grown from dump-sites around Gulu Municipality, Northern Uganda
    (International Journal of Social Science and Technology, 2016-07) Twinamatsiko, Richard; Mbabazi, Jolocam; Twinomuhwezi, Hannington
    This study investigated heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) contamination levels of soils and crops. Soil and plant samples were collected from farms around the dump sites in Gulu Township Pece wet land and other samples from Katikamwe wet land in Bushenyi which served as a control site. The samples from both sites were well prepared, digested and the level of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that metal levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Pece wet land were significantly higher than those in similar food crops from rural control sites with the exception of zinc in cocoyam. Despite the higher values of these metals than those of the control sites, its only lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) maximum permissible levels. It was also observed that heavy metal uptake depend on plant species and soil quality.
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    Untapped wealth potential in fruit wastes for Uganda community
    (International Journal of Advanced Academic Research | Science, Technology & Engineering, 2017-02) Oluwole, Ibrahim Raji; Onu, Peter
    Uganda is a country rich in abundant arable lands that enhance growth of several agricultural products. About 70% of the country’s land mass is currently being cultivated with fruits and vegetables being the most predominantly. With high level of farming in the entire country, there is undoubtedly high level of waste generation from such produce. Proper disposal of the fruit wastes has subsequently been a perennial problem in Uganda due to high costs involved in contracting the effluent collectors as well as limited availability of landfills. They are often disposed unscrupulously as they carry no useful value in the minds of average local citizen. Thus, if the situation is not properly managed, fruit wastes can produce odor, soil pollution, harborage for harmful insects as well as several environmental issues asides resulting in greenhouse gas emission during decomposition; hence, huge amount of valuable untapped commodities that can result in wealth creation will be lost and subsequently causing serious ecological damages. Hence this study investigates and reviews the major composition of some fruit wastes, specifically banana, mango and pineapple, as well as the drivable biotechnological and industrial applications that could be exploited from proper waste recovery system in Uganda.The study concluded that banana, mango and pineapple wastes contain much reusable potentials to drive the idea of new and emerging technologies, such as green technology for biogas or bioethanol production to fruition in industrial, economic, social and ecological facet by providing raw materials for manufacturing, process and pharmaceutical industries; while also promoting the adoption of efficient farming system to improve overall profitability and competiveness.
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    Analysis of Stakeholder’s Perspectives towards Conservation of National Park, Northern Province, Rwanda
    (IJIRSET, 2017-09) Nsengumuremyi, Concorde; Mbatudde, Maria; Imanishimwe, Ange
    The management and sustainable use of Protected Areas Management Policy in Rwanda is of great interest to many stakeholders. This study was conducted from May to August, 2016 to find out local communities and other stakeholders perceptions towards co-management of Volcanoes National Park of Rwanda (VNP). The sample size of the study was 81 respondents including neighbouring rural community from two sectors that depend on using the VNP usually illegally and the key respondents from institutions and local leaders whose resources assist the VNP management. The findings indicated that stakeholders have different perspectives on co-management activities of VNP. Some of interviewed farmers especially those bordering VNP in Kinigi and Shingiro sectors of Musanze District showed negative attitude where they are not willing to perform agriculture on their lands because of crop destruction by wild animals from the park. Both the level of synergy and approaches used were moderate by scale used as indicated by the study findings. The study findings indicated that there is no relationship between stakeholder’s perspectives and co-management of VNP (r=0.145, P>0.05). It was noted that stakeholders express various challenges such as lack of enough alternative solutions to the problems met by rural community and low level of participation in decision making. There is a need to find ways in which local leaders could be taken on a tour of operational and Park-people policy guidelines need to be formulated that will define roles of local stakeholders in protected area activities and programs.